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How important is new energy solar to us?

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Issuing time:2019-12-30 17:18

There are many types of energy. According to whether it is renewable, it is divided into renewable energy and non-renewable energy; according to the maturity of human development and utilization technology, it is divided into conventional energy and new energy. Energy can also be divided according to the way it is used, which is the so-called centralized energy and non-centralized energy, that is, distributed energy.

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Distributed Energy System (Distributed Energy System, DES) is a way of energy use that emerges with urbanization and human pursuit of higher quality of life. Its characteristic is to achieve the goal of protecting the environment, safe supply and cheaper energy while cascading management and comprehensive utilization of energy, while investing in less energy to meet more diverse needs.


Distributed energy was first developed in the United States from the late 1970s. For more than 30 years, distributed energy has been vigorously developed and promoted in many countries, such as the United States, Japan, Denmark, and the Netherlands. At the same time, its role in energy conservation and emission reduction has also allowed these countries to effectively enjoy the benefits and then promote their further development. The experience gained in foreign countries for decades is worthy of reference for our country. In fact, this is also the general trend of the development of distributed energy worldwide, the situation of energy and environment, the requirements of sustainable economic development, and the characteristics of distributed energy itself. It can be seen that distributed energy is not only a certain energy utilization method, but also a major mode of energy supply in the future. It is a starting point to transform from the current energy production-led model to a user-oriented development model that provides comprehensive energy solutions.


Renewable energy is an inexhaustible and clean primary energy source on the planet. However, its large-scale development and utilization encountered challenges of barriers and volatility. With the rise of distributed energy systems, new ways to solve this problem have been found. For example, the U.S. energy strategy is to rely on the shale gas revolution to increase natural gas supply. Through the development of distributed energy and natural gas transportation, it can directly replace coal and oil. The microgrid is composed of natural gas distributed energy as the core, which can accommodate more intermittent Unstable renewable energy sources connect these pipe networks to each other into a smart grid. Merged intelligent technology advances to natural gas, supply, and supply: Water supply and drainage systems reduce energy consumption and costs through technical advantages, maintain the competitiveness of Meiyang's development of advanced applications, and intelligently maintain information technology. Strategic advantages and strategic control capabilities. This can be a direction worthy of reference to solve the problem of supply of Zhenghui in urbanization planning and construction, and it is also a development idea of distributed energy that was born and advocated by the government and many domestic experts and scholars based on their own practices.


In recent years, due to the significant reduction in manufacturing costs of photovoltaic power generation equipment, their large-scale integration into the power grid has become a development trend, which has brought new challenges to the already weak “electricity access” link of power systems. As we all know, in the process of "generation, transmission, supply, and use" of electrical energy, it must reach "transient equilibrium" in both time and space. If there is a local imbalance, it will cause power quality problems, that is, flicker, "transient intense "The imbalance will also come to do disaster-related work, and may cause the dislocation of the power system and large-scale power outages. To ensure the safe, economic, and reliable operation of the public power grid, it is necessary to establish a strong "electric energy storage" unit (energy storage system) at the key nodes of the power system to support the system. This is a research topic that must be taken into consideration when large-scale photovoltaic and wind power generation are connected to the power grid.


Distributed power generation system requires storage function. Through its own storage, the phenomenon of peak-to-valley shifting of power generation and power consumption by itself. For noisy power sources such as photovoltaic power generation and wind power generation, because load requirements cannot be met at any time and at all times, energy storage is an essential feature to support the development and application of this type of distributed power generation. At present, distributed photovoltaic power generation systems usually do not have energy storage devices because the price-performance ratio of batteries has not been accepted by the market, and only the method of limiting "penetration rate" can be used.


Photovoltaic power generation is connected to the power grid, and its impact can be characterized by permeability. Permeability is defined as the ratio of AC output power to peak load power of a photovoltaic system. Relevant research points out that the network voltage is required to be controlled between -10% and + 6% of normal voltage. When the photovoltaic AC output power is equal to about 25% of the peak load, the voltage will exceed the limit. Therefore, the national standard limits the penetration rate to below 25%. To achieve high permeability, energy storage devices need to be installed.


In fact, energy storage is not only a technology and product, but also a collection of functions. The combined grid-connected operation of energy storage devices and distributed energy sources such as wind power and photovoltaic power generation can help improve the ability of the power grid to accept them. By integrating the energy conversion device, various smooth and fast control of the power system can be achieved, providing a "smart" foundation for the smart grid (or smart microgrid), and further enhancing the safety, economics, and spirit of the two European wetlands operations. To achieve the monitoring of power quality and quantity. At present, the three most promising energy storage types are low-carbon batteries, lithium batteries, and flow batteries. Among them, the cost of lithium batteries is still relatively high, the consistency problem still exists, the cost of flow batteries is higher, and lead carbon currently appears to be a viable energy storage technology route in the near future. It is expected that in the next 5 to 10 years, it will be Mainstream, and then look at whether other technologies have also broken through.


成本 The cost of lead-carbon batteries is about one third of that of lithium batteries, and the gross profit margin is much higher than that of traditional products, which originally had very strong profit margins. Because the battery uses special carbon materials, the threshold is high.


As a new type of super battery, lead carbon battery is a combination of lead-acid battery and super capacitor. It not only takes advantage of the instantaneous high-capacity charging of super capacitor, but also takes advantage of the specific energy advantage of lead-acid battery. Good charge-discharge performance can be fully charged in 1.5h, and the addition of carbon prevents the negative sulfate phenomenon, which improves a factor of battery failure in the past and prolongs battery life.


的 Lithium-ion batteries based on this new structure exhibit strong charge and discharge properties and excellent cycle stability, even under high-intensity charge and discharge conditions. Compared with commonly used graphite-based positive electrodes, its charging speed is nearly 16 times faster. Allows mobile electronic devices to be fully charged in 10 minutes instead of the current hours.


In developed countries such as Europe and the United States, grid electricity prices are relatively high, and distributed photovoltaic power generation is already on the grid at parity. It is also close to parity in China. In this way, increasing energy storage can also enable spontaneous and self-use to gain greater benefits.


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